Kur’ân’da Ölümle İlgili Fiiller ve Arapça’daki Genel Görünüm

Dublin Core

Title

Kur’ân’da Ölümle İlgili Fiiller ve Arapça’daki Genel Görünüm
The Acts Related With Death in The Qur’an and General Perspective in Arabic

Subject

Ölüm, Kur’ân-ı Kerîm, Arap Dili ve Edebiyatı
Death, The Holy Qur’ân, Arabic Language and Literature

Description

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</div>Bu dünyaya gelen insan, orada ne kadar kalır bilinmez, ama her can sahibi gibi muhakkak bir gün göçüp gider. Zira sözü edilen âlemde günler haftaları, haftalar ayları, aylar yılları kovalar, bir başka deyişle gün geçer ve ömür biter. Neticede insan fâni, Allah bâkîdir.

Aslında ruhun bedenden ayrılması anlamına gelen ölüm, gerçekten anlatılması çok güç olmasına rağmen bu çalışmanın konusu yapılmıştır. Makâlede ölüm, Kur’ân’da ve genel anlamda Arapça’da geçtiği şekliyle ağırlıklı olarak fiiller bazında ele alınmaktadır. Fiiller, kelâmî, fıkhî, psikolojik, sosyolojik, târihî vb. açılardan değil yalnızca dil yönünden değerlendirilmektedir. Amaç, ölümün Kur’ân’da ve genel anlamda da Arapça’da nasıl ifâde edildiğini tespit edilen dil malzemesinden yararlanarak okuyucuya yansıtmaktır.

مَاتَ fiili, ölmek anlamının yanı sıra başka anlamlarda da kullanılır. Örneğin kişi uyuduğunda مَاتَ الرَّجُلُ, ateşin külü soğuyup kordan hiçbir şey kalmadığında مَاتَتِ النَّارُ ve rüzgar dindiğinde مَاتَتِ الرِّيحُ denir.

Ölüm, yaşam çeşitlerine göre çeşitli şekillerde meydana gelir. Örneğin insanda, hayvanlarda ve bitkide bulunan gelişen, büyüyen gücün karşıtı olan şey, hissî kuvvetin yok olması, akıl/düşünce kuvvetinin yok olması yani cehâlet, uyumak, yaşamı bulandıran, kederlendiren hüzün ve korku gibi.
Human coming into this world is not known that he/she remains how many years in there, but he/she surely passes away one day like every soul. Because the days pursue the weeks, the weeks follow the months, the months pursue the years; in other words, day passes and life ends. Consequently humankind is mortal, God is eternal.

In fact, although the explanation of the death which means the separation of the soul from the body is really very difficult to describe, the subject of this study is made. In this article the death is discussed predominantly on the basis of verbs as in the Qur’an and Arabic in the general sense. Verbs are only evaluated in terms of language, not the theological and juridical terms. The aim reflects to the reader how the death is being expressed in the Qur’an and in the Arabic language in the general sense taking advantage of determined language material.

In Arabic, the death is the opposite of life, means “The end of life” in the dictionary. Generally, the death which is defined as “lost the source of material life of the person by the separation of soul from the body” takes a very large place in the Qur’ân, the hadith and in Arabic which is language of these two main sources. Here, meant with death passes away under normal circumstances rather than be assaulted, are dying from suffocation before being killed and slaughtered.

These issues discussed in this article are located under two basic titles. The first is the verbs related with death in the Qur’ân and the usage of the verbs of مَاتَ, تُوُفِّيَ and هَلَكَ is given in this section. After, the other verbs concerned with the death in the Qur’ân are discussed in detail. The second is the general view in Arabic. In this part, many verbs related with the matters such as the death or ending carries the person away; it comes or catches to the person; being close to death; to die in young and fresh; to die without disease; to die naturally in the bed; to die suddenly; death of relatives; death in different reasons and ways; the end of the life; death of the person or people and the extinction of generation; the death of person and subsequent situations; the death of animals have been identified and examined.

The verb of مَاتَ is also used in another sense as well as die. For example, it is said when the person sleeps مَاتَ الرَّجُلُ, when the fire’s ashes cooled down and there is nothing from cinder مَاتَتِ النَّارُ and wind does not blow مَاتَتِ الرِّيحُ.

Death occurs in various ways according to the kinds of life. For example, the thing which is opposed to the growing and thriving power in humans, animals and plants, the destruction of sentimental force, the destruction of mind/thought force, i.e. ignorance, sleeping, sadness and fear blurring and desolating the life.

Here we want to present one of the verbs in the article as an example. It has been conflicted in the meaning of the verb تَرَدَّى finding the verse 11 in Sûrah al-Layl ﴿وَمَا يُغْنِي عَنْهُ مَالُهُ إِذَا تَرَدَّى﴾ “And his wealth will not avail him when he falls into the pit.”. While some interprets this verb as “to perish by falling into the hell, to fall into the hell, to fall into the fire, to fall into the grave or the hellhole”, the others gives it the meaning of death. It is stated in Câmi‘u’l-bayân that more precise than these two views according to famous meaning ofالتَّرَدِّي is the view reflecting the meaning of “to fall into the fire”. Because, when the meaning of death is meant, it is expressed that anybody died رَدِيَ فُلانٌ and تَرَدَّى has been said too little. However, it is stated in en-Nüket ve’l-‘uyûn that there have been two perspectives about this تَرَدَّى verb. The first is “to fall into the fire”; the second is “to fall into the grave by death”. Thirdly, it is possible the meaning of “to fall into the heresy and sin”.

Some verbs related with death in Arabic by literal meaning are as follows: سَلَّمَ رُوحَهُ (He gave up the ghost.), اِنْتَقَلَ إِلَى جِوَارِ رَبِّهِ (He was transferred into the presence of the Lord.), خَرَّ يَخُرُّ ويَخِرُّ فُلانٌ (He fell.), ذَهَبَ يَذْهَبُ الشخصُ/الإنسانُ (He went.), سَكَتَ يَسْكُتُ الرَّجُلُ (He paused, stopped the movement.), قَضَى دَيْنَهُ (He paid his debt.), لَبَّى نِدَاءَ رَبِّهِ (He was called away by the Lord.), لَعِقَ يَلْعَقُ إِصْبَعَهُ (He licked his finger.) and so on. Again اُغْتُرِضَ (He died young.),اُعْتُبِطَ (He died without disease/certain disease.), تَرِزَ يَتْرَزُ (He died and dried.), مَاتَ حَتْفَ أَنْفِهِ (He died a natural death.),اُفْتُئِتَ (He died suddenly/abruptly.), آمَتْ مِنْ زَوْجِهَا (Her husband died and she was a widow.), هَرْوَزَ الحَيَوَانُ (Animal died). All of these are only a few examples to other verbs attracting notice regarding death.

The outcomes reached at the end of this research are briefly as follows:

The verbs that we face firstly and mostly regarding death in the Qur’ân are no doubt مَاتَ, تُوُفِّيَ and هَلكَ verbs. The first attracted attention from the verbs used in conjunction with مَوْت (death) are phrases being used حَضَرَ, جَاءَ and يَأْتِي verbs to state that the death comes to someone. For example جَاءَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ (Death came unto one of you.). Also the phrases such as جَاءَتْ سَكْرَةُ الْمَوْتِ بِالْحَقِّ (The stupor of death came in truth.), يُغْشَى عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْمَوْت (He faints from death.), قَدَّرْنَا بَيْنَكُمُ الْمَوْتَ (We decreed death among you.), خَلَقَ الْمَوْتَ (He has created death.) and قَضَيْنَا عَلَيْهِ الْمَوْتَ (We decreed death for him.) are relevant with مَوْت (death). The other verbs which expresses the coming of death, however, have demonstrated themselves in the form of أَتَانا الْيَقِينُ (Death came to us.), جَاءَ أَمْرُ اللهِ (There issued the Command of Allah (death).) and زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ (Eventually you died, finally death came to you.). Also in this context, the verbs which state escaping from death حَادَ and meeting with death and seeing it لَقِيَ and رَأَى do not take account of.

While the situation of closing to death or very close to it in the Qur’ân have been expressed with the phrases such as بَلَغَتِ الْحُلْقُومَ ((The soul of the dying man/person) reached the throat.), بَلَغَتِ التَّرَاقِيَ ((The soul) reached to the collarbone (In its exit).) and اِلْتَفَّتِ السَّاقُ بِالسَّاقِ (One leg is joined to the other.) desperation against death has been stated with the phrases as تَرْجِعُونَهَا (Call back the soul/Restore his soul.), لَقَطَعْنَا مِنْهُ الْوَتِينَ (We would have cut off his heart’s artery.) and فَمَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ عَنْهُ حَاجِزِين (And none of you will save him from Us.).

Although it has been expressed to return to God of angels or servants with death in the phrase of رُدُّوا إِلَى اللهِ, when it is searched other verses related with returning to God or being returned to God, it is seen in the interpretations that those verbs are generally related with after death, the Day of Judgment and hereafter. In respect of the subject of لِقَاءُ اللهِ (meeting with God), though it has given meanings such as until the Day of Judgment or the Day of meeting with God at the Day of Last Judgment, until the day they met with the faction of the punishment in some interpretations to the phrase of إلى يَوْمِ يَلْقَوْنَهُ finding verse 77 in Sûrah al-Tawbah it has given meanings such as until the day they will die and leave the world in other interpretations. There are many verses regrading convergency to God, but these have been accepted as a situation related with hereafter in the sources of interpretation in general.

There are the verbs given other meanings as given meaning of death by commentators as well. For example خَرَّ verb (verse 14 of Sûrah Saba’) etc.

In this research many verbs with verbs mentioned were dealt within the context the verbs related with death in the Qur’ân and have been studied extensively.

The verbs stating the death in Arabic were reviewed from the point of view of literal and other meanings and has emerged semantic field related with death in the following:

He gave up the ghost, he delivered his soul, his spirit was received, his soul reared/rose up, his body became empty from his soul, he gave his last breath, his soul/ spirit went, his life went from his body, he tasted his death,...

He went, went through, broke his connection/network, became lonely, said goodbye to the life, left from the world, he moved from one side of the road to the other side, went through the road of life or the world bridge, walked away, far away, fell off, deflated, became silent, became cold, licked his finger, slept, paid his debt, his shadow disappeared…

He was transferred into the presence of the Lord, he attained the mercy of Allah/Hakk, he retrieved Allah's approval; he met with his Lord; he came into the presence of his Lord; He arrived his Lord; he turned to his Lord…

God took his soul, took him unto Him, put out his breathing, shutted up his voice, destroyed his shade, rolled up his life...

Creator

Abdulkadir BAYAM

Publisher

Ilahiyat Bilimleri Arastirma Vakfi (IBAV)

Date

2016-12-13

Relation

http://www.bilimname.com.tr/admin/upload/_3654291034.jpg

Format

pdf

Language

Turkish

Type

Text

Collection

Citation

Abdulkadir BAYAM, “Kur’ân’da Ölümle İlgili Fiiller ve Arapça’daki Genel Görünüm,” bilimname: Düşünce Platformu, accessed August 19, 2017, http://repository.erciyes.edu.tr/bilimname/items/show/129.